INCO TERMS

EXW Ex-Works
This represents the minimum risk and cost for the supplier and the maximum risk and cost for the buyer. The seller’s only responsibility is to make the goods available at his premises. He is not responsible for loading the goods on the vehicle provided by the buyer, unless otherwise agreed.

FCA Free Carrier (…named place)

The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when he has handed over the goods, cleared for export, into the charge of the carrier named by the buyer at the named place or point.

CPT Carriage Paid To (… named place of destination)

The seller pays the freight for the carriage of the goods to the named destination, The risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered to the carrier, is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods have been delivered into the custody of the carrier.

CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid To (…named place of destination)

The seller has the same obligations as under CPT but with the addition that the seller has to procure cargo insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The buyer should note that under the CIP term the seller is only required to obtain insurance on minimum coverage.
DAF Delivered at Frontier (…named place)

The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available, cleared for export, at the named point and place at the frontier but before the customs border of the adjoining country. The term “frontier” may be used for any frontier including that of the country of export. Therefore it is of vital importance that the frontier in question be defined precisely by always naming the point and place in the term.
DDU Delivered Duty Unpaid (…named place of destination)

The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto (excluding duties, taxes, and other official charges payable upon importation as well as the costs and risks of carrying out customs formalities). The buyer has to pay any additional costs and to bear any risks caused by his failure to clear the goods for import in time.
DDP Delivered Duty Paid (…named place of destination)

The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available at the named place in the country of importation. The seller has to bear the risks and costs, including duties, taxes, and other charges of delivering the goods thereto, cleared for importation. Whilst the EXW term represents the minimum obligation for the seller, DDP represents the maximum obligation.
FAS Free Alongside Ship (…named port of shipment)

The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been placed alongside the vessel on the quay or in lighters at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss or of damage to the goods from that moment. The FAS term requires the buyer to clear the goods for export.
FOB Free On Board (…named port of shipment)

The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have passed over the ship’s rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss of or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for sea or inland waterway transport. When the ship’s rail serves no practical purpose, such as in the case of roll-on/roll-off or container traffic, the FCA term is more appropriate to use.
CFR Cost And Freight (…named port of destination)

The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination but the risk of loss of or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time the goods have been delivered on board the vessel, is transferred from the seller to the buyer when the goods pass the ship’s rail in the port of shipment. The CFR term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.

This term can only be used for sea and inland waterway transport. When the ship’s rail serves no practical purpose, such as in the case of roll-on/roll-off or container traffic, the CPT term is more appropriate to use.
CIF Cost, Insurance and Freight (…named port of destination)

The seller has the same obligations as under CFR but with the addition that he has to procure marine insurance against the buyer’s risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. The seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. The buyer should note that under the CIF term the seller is only required to obtain insurance on minimum coverage. The CIF term requires the seller to clear the goods for export.

DES Delivered Ex Ship (…named port of destination)

The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when the goods have been made available to the buyer on board the ship uncleared for import at the named port of destination. The seller has to bear all the costs and risks involved in bringing goods to the named port of destination.
DEQ Delivered Ex Quay (Duty Paid) (…named port of destination)

The seller fulfills his obligation to deliver when he has made the goods available to the buyer on the quay (wharf) at the named port of destination, cleared for importation. The seller has to bear all risks and costs including duties, taxes and other charges of delivering the goods thereto.

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